Nuremberg Trials Cigarette Case with Contents, 1945
Nuremberg Trials Cigarette Case with Contents, 1945 - Moulded white streaked plastic, base with cap, marked with embossed type in a deep red painted frame "INTERNATIONAL MILITARY-TRIBUNAL - 1945 - NURNBERG GERMANY" on the front, City of Nuremberg coat-of-arms in a dark green painted frame on the reverse, containing a factory sealed in plastic, unopened, package of Camel cigarettes, marked "Free of Tax -- For use only of U.S. military or naval forces in Alaska and Hawaii, or for use outside the jurisdiction of the Internal Revenue Laws of the United States. This product is admitted free of Duty." on the cigarette tax stamp, 26.5 mm x 58.5 mm x 79 mm in height, extremely fine. Footnote: The Nuremburg Trails was a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces of World War II (with judges from France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States), most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of Nuremburg, Bavaria, Germany, in 1945-46, at the Palace of Justice. The first and best known of these trials, described as "the greatest trial in history" by Norman Birkett, one of the British judges who presided over it, was the Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT). Held between November 20, 1945 and October 1, 1946, the Tribunal was given the task of trying twenty-three of the most important political and military leaders of the Third Reich. Missing from the twenty-three were Adlof Hitler, Heinrich Himmler and Joseph Goebbels, all of whom had committed suicide several months before the indictment was signed. The accusers were successful in unveiling the background of developments that had led to the outbreak of World War II, which cost at least forty million lives in Europe alone, as well as the extent of the atrocities committed in the name of the Hitler regime. Twelve of the accused were sentenced to death, seven received prison sentences, and three were acquitted. Of the twelve defendants sentenced to death by hanging, two were not hanged. Hermann Goring committed suicide the night before the execution and Martin Bormann was not present when convicted (unknown to the Allies, he had likely been killed trying to escape from Berlin in May 1945, his remains found in 1972 and DNA confirmed in 1998), while another accused, Robert Ley, committed suicide within a week of the trial's commencement. The ten remaining defendants sentenced to death were hanged. The definition of what constitutes a war crime is described by the Nuremberg Principles, a set of guidelines document which was created as a result of the trial.