A Republic of Poland Government Official's Collar Chain
A Republic of Poland Government Official's Collar Chain - Bronze, chain features the left-facing crowned Polish eagle insignia, maker marked "B.cia LOPIENSCY WARSZAWA" on its reverse, 69 mm x 80 mm, suspended by a dual three-link chain from a 41 mm x 55.5 mm swelled, wide oval loop inscribed "RP" (Republic of Poland), on a full-length neck chain composed of twenty-nine 29 mm interlocking bronze rings on either side, looped to the "RP" loop at the bottom and looped to a 31.5 mm x 61 mm central ring interlaced with a horizontal figure-eight fixture at the top, where it would reside behind the wearer's neck, residue evident in the recessed areas from cleaning, light contact, near extremely fine. Footnote: Lopienski of Warsaw is one of the oldest family businesses in Warsaw, the foundry founded in 1862 by the bronze sculptor John Lopienski. The business continued under the tutelage of his sons Gregory, Felix and Ignatius, his grandchildren Tadeusz, Wladyslaw and Zdzislaw. They made dozens of monuments, statues and chamber sculptures, the thousands of works of art made of gold, silver and bronze. In 1950, the company was nationalized under the communist government and its creative potential, personnel and technical prowess were irretrievably wasted. In 1956, the last of the brothers, Tadeusz, received government approval to open the small Metal Decorative Arts Studio (formerly Brother Lopienscy), which is operated today by John Lopinski's great-granddaughter Anna Lopienski-Lipczyk and her husband.