A Rare Presentation Medal to Major General Charles Andrew Willou
A Rare Presentation Medal to Major General Charles Andrew Willou - Awarded by Chairman E. Tanaka, Federation of Autonomous Police Chief of Japan; silver medal, partially gilded, set with red cabochon glass, 39mm x 50mm, very fine. Charles Andrew Willoughby was a Major General in the U.S. Army serving as General Douglas MacArthurs Chief of Intelligence during most of World War II and the Korean Conflict. Willoughby claimed to have been born Adolf Karl (or Charles) Tscheppe-Weidenbach in the town of Heidelberg, Germany. There are numerous versions of his early life in Germany, both from him, and others. He also made claims that he had three older brothers in the German Army, and made different assertions as to whether his mother was German and/or American. On immigration to the US in 1910, he enlisted in the US Army first as a Private and rose to the rank of Sergeant and was honorably discharged. After discharge as a Sergeant in the US Army in 1913 he entered Gettysburg College with the specific intention to earn a B.A. degree and re-apply to the US Army for an officers commission. After graduation from college he spent three years teaching German and military studies. At this time he was also applying for a permanent commission as an officer to the US Army. During this period he engaged in various pro-German activities (including the publication of newspaper articles) which aroused the deep suspicion of a number of his colleagues and ultimately attracted the attention of the precursor to the FBI. He eventually did win a permanent commission to the US Army, under the name of Adolph C. Weidenbach and rose to Captain and served in WW I in the AEF (he changed his name, it is thought, at some point in the 1920s to Charles Willoughby. With respect to the recently released FBI files, it is clear Weidenbach was recalled to Washington in 1917 from overseas service as the aforementioned suspicions and investigation as to his sympathies for the Germans gained credence. The FBI files investigating him document active pro-German sentiment on Weidenbachs part and also outline the twisted and uneven nature of Willoughbys/Weidenbachs stated background. During this period of investigation, which lasted about 18 months, Weidenbach lived in Washington while suffering self described backwater postings. How and why the investigation was terminated or ended is unclear. The FBI files which were compiled between 1916 and 1918, long before Willoughby/Weibenbach was even remotely near his later historical stature, clearly paint a picture of an individual with a less than clear background and very pro-German sympathies. It is extremely hard to fathom how the person portrayed in the released files later changed his name, continued to show fascist sympathies, and subsequently rose to be one of the most important figures in American military intelligence in World War Two. MacArthur was aware of Willoughby's attitudes referring to him as "my pet fascist. Willoughby has been criticized for his actions as General MacArthurs chief of intelligence during the early months of the Korean War. After his retirement, Willoughby traveled to Spain and became an unofficial advisor to the Spanish dictator Franco. In his later years, Willoughby would publish the Foreign Intelligence Digest newspaper. He died in 1972.